Skip Navigation

Middle School Scope & Sequences

  • Analyze how the interaction between characters contributes to the development of the plot in a literary text
  • Analyze the development of stated or implied themes throughout a literary text
  • Explain the influence of multiple narrators and shifts of point of view in a literary work
  • Describe the impact of various poetic forms on meaning and style
  • Explain how text sections and features convey meaning in a text
  • Analyze author's purpose in multiple accounts of the same topic or event
  • Track the development of an argument and types of reasoning used
  • Explain how figurative language contributes to tone and meaning in texts
  • Paraphrase content from grade-level texts
  • Compare and contrast how authors present information on the same topic
  • Identify rhetorical appeals in a text
  • Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes to determine meaning of grade-level words
  • Determine the connotative and denotative meaning of grade-appropriate words
  • Write personal and fictional narratives
  • Writing and support a claim
  • Write expository texts
  • Utilize the writing process
  • Give oral presentations
  • Follow the rules of English grammar: verbals, comparative and superlative adjectives, pronouns, colons, dangling modifiers, ellipses, hyphens, and varied sentence structures
  • Conduct and present research
  • Utilize digital writing tools
  • Define rational numbers
  • Plot, order, and compare rational numbers
  • Compare rational numbers on a number line
  • Find the absolute value of rational numbers
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving absolute value
  • Multiply and divide positive multi-digit numbers with decimals to the thousandths
  • Compute product and quotients of positive fractions by positive fractions
  • Solve multi-step real world problems involving any of the four operations with positive multi-digit decimals or fractions
  • Find the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers
  • Evaluate positive rational numbers with natural number exponents
  • Express composite whole numbers as a product of prime factors with natural number exponents
  • Rewrite positive rational numbers in different but equivalent forms
  • Add and subtract integers with procedural fluency
  • Multiply and divide integers with procedural fluency
  • Translate written descriptions into algebraic expressions and translate algebraic expressions into written descriptions
  • Translate a real-world written description into algebraic inequality
  • Evaluate algebraic expressions
  • Generate equivalent algebraic expressions with integer coefficients
  • Determine the values that make an equation or inequality true or false
  • Write and solve one-step equations in one variable using addition and subtraction, where all terms and solutions are integers
  • Write and solve one-step equations in one variable using multiplication and division, where all terms and solutions are integers
  • Determine the unknown decimal or fraction in an equation
  • Write and interpret ratios to show the relative sizes of two quantities using appropriate notation
  • Determine a rate for a ratio of quantities with different units
  • Generate and complete a two- or three- column table to display equivalent part-to-part ratios and part-to-part-to-whole ratios
  • Apply ratio relationships to solve mathematical and real-world problems involving percentages
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving rates, ratios, and unit rates
  • Plot rational number ordered pairs in all four quadrants and on both axes
  • Find distances between ordered pairs
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems by plotting points on a coordinate plane
  • Apply a formula to find the area of a triangle
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving the area of quadrilaterals and composite figures
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving the volume of right rectangular prisms
  • Find the surface area of right rectangular prisms and pyramids
  •  Recognize and formulate a statistical question that would generate numerical data
  • Find and interpret mean, median, mode, and range
  • Given a box plot, determine the minimum, the lowest quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum
  • Given a histogram or line plot, qualitatively describe and interpret the spread and distribution of data
  • Create box plots and histograms to represent sets of numerical data
  • Determine and describe how changes in data values impact measure of center and variation
  • Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms
  • Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells
  • Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells
  • Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis
  • Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body
  • Analyze and describe how and why organisms are classified according to shared characteristics
  • Explore the Law of Conservation of Energy by differentiating between potential and kinetic energy
  • Measure and graph the distance versus time for an object moving at a constant speed
  • Investigate and explore types of forces
  • Explore the Law of Gravity
  • Investigate and describe that an unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed, or direction of motion, or both
  • Describe and give examples of ways in which Earth's surface is built up and torn down by physical and chemical weathering, erosion, and deposition.
  • Recognize that there are a variety of different landforms on Earth's surface and relate these landforms as they apply to Florida
  • Differentiate among the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through Earth's system
  • Investigate and apply how the cycling of water between the atmosphere and hydrosphere has an effect on weather patterns and climate
  • Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and ocean currents influence local weather in measurable terms
  • Differentiate and show interactions among the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere
  • Explain how energy provided by the sun influences global patterns of atmospheric movement and the temperature differences between air, water, and land
  • Differentiate between weather and climate
  • Investigate how natural disasters affect human life
  • Describe ways humans protect themselves from hazardous weather and sun exposure
  • Describe how the composition and structure of the atmosphere protects life and insulates the planet
  • Differentiate between experiments and scientific investigations
  • Recognize and explain scientific theories
  • Recognize and explain scientific laws
  • Conduct scientific investigations and report results
  • Identify scientists who have made contributions to scientific knowledge
  • Identify democratic concepts developed in ancient Greece that served as a foundation for American constitutional democracy
  • Identify how the government of the Roman Republic contributed to the development of democratic principles
  • Identify principles from ancient Greek and Roman civilizations which are reflected in the American political process today, and discuss their effect on the American political process
  • Identify the factors that increase economic growth
  • Describe and identify traditional and command economies as they appear in different civilizations
  • Describe the following economic concepts as they relate to early civilization: scarcity, opportunity cost, supply and demand, barter, trade, productive resources
  • Evaluate how civilizations through clans, leaders, and family groups make economic decisions for that civilization providing a framework for future city-state or nation development
  • Identify examples of mediums of exchange (currencies) used for trade (barter) for each civilization, and explain why international trade requires a system for a medium of exchange between trading both inside and among various regions
  • Categorize products that were traded among civilizations, and give examples of barriers to trade of those products
  • Describe traditional economies (Egypt, Greece, Rome, Kush) and elements of those economies that led to the rise of a merchant class and trading partners
  • Describe the relationship among civilizations that engage in trade, including the benefits and drawbacks of voluntary trade.
  • Use latitude and longitude coordinates to understand the relationship between people and places on the Earth
  • Analyze the purposes of map projections (political, physical, special purpose) and explain the applications of various types of maps
  • Identify natural wonders of the ancient world
  • Utilize tools geographers use to study the world
  • Use scale, cardinal, and intermediate directions, and estimation of distances between places on current and ancient maps of the world
  • Use a map to identify major bodies of water of the world, and explain ways they have impacted the development of civilizations
  • Use maps to identify characteristics and boundaries of ancient civilizations that have shaped the world today
  • Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate, and absolute and relative locations have influenced settlement, interactions, and the economies of ancient civilizations of the world
  • Differentiate between continents, regions, countries, and cities in order to understand the complexities of regions created by civilizations
  • Analyze the relationship of physical geography to the development of ancient river valley civilizations
  • Explain how the geographical location of ancient civilizations contributed to the culture and politics of those societies
  • Interpret how geographic boundaries invite or limit interaction with other regions and cultures
  • Explain the concept of cultural diffusion, and identify the influences of different ancient cultures on one another
  • Interpret choropleths or dot-density maps to explain the distribution of population in the ancient world
  • Explain how the physical landscape has affected the development of agriculture and industry in the ancient world
  • Analyze the impact of human populations on the ancient world's ecosystems
  • Explain how family and ethnic relationships influenced ancient cultures
  • Use maps to trace significant migrations, and analyze their results
  • Locate sites in Africa and Asia where archaeologists have found evidence of early human societies, and trace their migration patterns to other parts of the world
  • Identify the methods used to compensate for the scarcity of resources in the ancient world
  • Use geographic terms and tools to explain why ancient civilizations developed networks of highways, waterways, and other transportation linkages
  • Use geographic tools and terms to analyze how famine, drought, and natural disasters plagued many ancient civilizations
  • Describe the Six Essential Elements of Geography as the organizing framework for understanding the world and its people
  • Compare maps of the world in ancient times with current political maps
  • Identify terms (decade, century, epoch, era, millennium, BC/BCE, AD/CE) and designations of time periods
  • Describe the roles of historians and recognize varying historical interpretations
  • Describe how history transmits culture and heritage and provides models of human character
  • Interpret and utilize primary and secondary sources
  • Use timelines to identify chronological order of historical events
  • Compare the lifestyles of hunter-gatherers with those of settlers of early agricultural communities
  • Describe how the developments of agriculture and metallurgy related to settlement, population growth, and the emergence of civilization
  • Identify the characteristics of civilization
  • Compare the economic, political, social, and religious institutions of ancient river civilizations
  • Summarize important achievements of Egyptian civilization
  • Determine the contributions of key figures from ancient Egypt
  • Summarize the important achievements of Mesopotamian civilization
  • Determine the impact of key figures from ancient Mesopotamian civilizations
  • Identify key figures and basic beliefs of the Israelites and determine how these beliefs compared with those of others in the geographic area
  • Compare the emergence of advanced civilizations in Meso and South America with the four early river valley civilizations
  • Analyze the cultural impact the ancient Phoenicians had on the Mediterranean world with regard to colonization (Carthage), exploration, maritime commerce (purple dye, tin), and written communication (alphabet)
  • Compare life in Athens and Sparta 
  • Explain the causes and effects of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
  • Summarize the important achievements and contributions of ancient Greek civilization
  • Determine the impact of key figures from ancient Greece
  • Summarize the key achievements, contributions, and figures associated with The Hellenistic Period
  • Determine the impact of significant figures associated with ancient Rome
  • Explain the impact of the Punic Wars on the development of the Roman Empire
  • Explain the transition from Roman Republic to empire and Imperial Rome, and compare Roman life and culture under each one
  • Explain the causes for the growth and longevity of the Roman Empire
  • Identify key figures and the basic beliefs of early Christianity and how these beliefs impacted the Roman Empire
  • Describe the key achievements and contributions of Roman civilization
  • Explain the reasons for the gradual decline of the Western Roman Empire after the Pax Romana
  • Compare life in the Roman Republic for patricians, plebeians, women, children, and slaves
  • Explain the spread and influence of the Latin language on Western Civilization
  • Describe the rise and fall of the ancient east African kingdoms of Kush and Axum and Christianity's development in Ethiopia
  • Discuss the significance of Aryan and other tribal migrations on Indian civilization
  • Recognize the political and cultural achievements of the Mauryan and Gupta empires
  • Summarize the important achievements and contributions of ancient Indian civilization
  • Describe the contributions of classical and post classical China
  • Identify key figures from classical and post classical China
  • Explain the significance of the silk roads and maritime routes across the Indian Ocean to the movement of goods and ideas among Asia, East Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin
  • Explain the rise and expansion of the Mongol empire and its effects on peoples of Asia and Europe including the achievements of Ghengis and Kublai Khan
  • Identify the causes and effects of Chinese isolation and the decision to limit foreign trade in the 15th century
  • Study the Book of Acts 
  • Explore “Big Questions” about…
    • God
    • The universe
    • Human beings
    • Truth
    • Morality

  • Analyze the impact of setting on character development and plot in literary text
  • Compare two or more themes and their development throughout a literary text
  • Explain the influence of narrators and shifts in point of view in a literary work
  • Analyze the impact of various poetic forms on meaning and style
  • Explain how text sections and features convey purpose in a text
  • Compare two or more central ideas and their development throughout a text
  • Explain how an author establishes and achieves purpose through diction and syntax
  • Track the development of an argument, analyzing types of reasoning used and their effectiveness
  • Analyze how figurative language contributes to tone and meaning in texts
  • Explain examples of allusions in text
  • Paraphrase content from grade-level texts
  • Compare and contrast how authors with differing perspectives address the same topics or themes 
  • Explain the meaning and significance of rhetorical devices in a text
  • Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes to determine meaning of words in grade-level content
  • Determine the connotative and denotative meaning of grade-appropriate words
  • Write personal and fictional narratives using narrative techniques, a recognizable point of view, precise words, and figurative language
  • Writing and support a claim using logical reasoning, relevant evidence, elaboration, a logical organizational structure with transitions, and acknowledging at least one counterclaim
  • Write expository texts to explain and analyze information from multiple sources
  • Utilize the writing process
  • Develop and give oral presentations
  • Follow the rules of English grammar: colons, dangling modifiers, ellipses, hyphens, passive and active voice, semicolons, and varied sentence structures
  • Conduct and present research
  • Utilize digital writing tools
  • Know and apply the Laws of Exponents to evaluate numerical expressions and generate equivalent numerical expressions
  • Rewrite rational numbers in different but equivalent forms including fractions, mixed numbers, repeating decimals and percentages
  • Solve mathematical problems using multi-step order of operations with rational numbers
  • Add, subtract, multiply and divide rational numbers with procedural fluency
  • Solve real-world problems involving any of the four operations with rational numbers
  • Apply properties of operations to add and subtract linear expressions with rational coefficients
  • Determine whether two linear expressions are equivalent
  • Write and solve one-step inequalities in one variable within a mathematical context and represent solutions algebraically or graphically
  • Write and solve two-step equations in one variable within a mathematical or real-world context
  • Apply previous understanding of percentages and ratios to solve multi-step real-world percent problems
  • Solve real-world problems involving proportions
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving the conversion of units across different measurement systems
  • Determine whether two quantities have a proportional relationship by examining a table, graph or written description
  • Determine the constant of proportionality within a mathematical or real-world context given a table, graph or written description of a proportional relationship
  • Graph proportional relationships from a table, equation or a written description
  • Given any representation of a proportional relationship, translate the representation to a written description, table or equation
  • Solve real-world problems involving proportional relationships
  • Recognize that fossil evidence can explained in creationism
  • Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another
  • Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees
  • Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis
  • Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment
  • Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web
  • Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism
  • Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites
  • Illustrate that the sun's energy arrives as radiation with a wide range of wavelengths, including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, and that white light is made up of a spectrum of many different colors
  • Observe and explain that light can be reflected, refracted, and/or absorbed
  • Recognize that light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials
  • Recognize that adding heat to or removing heat from a system may result in a temperature change and possibly a change of state
  • Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another
  • Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another
  • Observe and describe that heat flows in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach the same temperature
  • Describe the layers of the solid Earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic liquid and solid cores
  • Identify the patterns within the rock cycle and relate them to surface events and sub-surface events
  • Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth's crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth's surface
  • Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth
  • Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins
  • Identify test variables and outcome variables
  • Differentiate between experiments and scientific investigations
  • Recognize and explain scientific theories
  • Recognize and explain scientific laws
  • Conduct scientific investigations and report results
  • Locate the fifty states and their capital cities in addition to the nation’s capital on a map
  • Locate on a map the territories and protectorates of the United States
  • Interpret maps to identify geopolitical divisions and boundaries of places in North America
  • Locate major cultural landmarks that are emblematic of the United States
  • Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate, and absolute and relative location have influenced settlement, economies, and inter-governmental relations in North America
  • Describe current major cultural regions of North America
  • Use maps to describe the location, abundance, and variety of natural resources in North America
  • Explain cultural diffusion throughout North America
  • Examine the importance of demographics within political divisions of the United States
  • Represent current information about issues of conservation or ecology in the local community
  • Use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or other technology to view maps of current information about the United States
  • Explain how the principles of a market and mixed economy helped to develop the United States into a democratic nation
  • Discuss the importance of borrowing and lending in the United States, the government's role in controlling financial institutions, and list the advantages and disadvantages of using credit
  • Review the concepts of supply and demand, choice, scarcity, and opportunity cost as they relate to the development of the mixed market economy in the United States
  • Discuss the function of financial institutions in the development of a market economy
  • Assess how profits, incentives, and competition motivate individuals, households, and businesses in a free market economy
  • Compare the national budget process to the personal budget process
  • Explain how federal, state, and local taxes support the economy as a function of the United States government
  • Describe the banking system in the United States and its impact on the money supply
  • Identify and describe United States laws and regulations adopted to promote economic competition
  • Explain how economic institutions impact the national economy
  • Explain how international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between and among nations
  • Assess how the changing value of currency affects trade of goods and services between nations
  • Compare and contrast a single resource economy with a diversified economy
  • Explore Biblical evaluations of events in world history
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the origins and purposes of government, law, and the American political system
  • Evaluate the rights, roles, and responsibilities of United States citizens, and determine methods of active participation in society, government, and the political system
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the principles, functions, and organization of government
  • Demonstrate an understanding of contemporary issues in world affairs, and evaluate the role and impact of United States foreign policy
  • Romans and 1 & 2 Corinthians
  • Compare and contrast the key tenets of Christianity to Islam, naturalism, and new spirituality
    • Atheism, evolution, materialism
    • Islam, five pillars of Islam
    • Pantheism, reincarnation, karma
    • Righteousness, justification
    • Redemption, reconciliation, edification

  • Analyze the interaction between character development, setting, and plot in a literary text
  • Analyze two or more themes and their development throughout a literary text
  • Analyze how an author develops and individualizes the perspectives of different characters
  • Analyze structure, sound, imagery, and figurative language in poetry
  • Analyze how individual text sections and/or features convey a purpose and/or meaning in texts
  • Analyze two or more central ideas and their development throughout a text
  • Explain how an author establishes and achieves purpose(s) through rhetorical appeals and/or figurative language
  • Track the development of an argument, analyzing the types of reasoning used and their effectiveness, identifying ways in which the argument could be improved
  • Analyze how figurative language contributes to meaning and explain examples of symbolism in text(s)
  • Paraphrase content from grade-level texts
  • Compare and contrast the use or discussion of archetypes in texts
  • Explain how an author uses rhetorical devices to support or advance an appeal
  • Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing
  • Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content
  • Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level
  • Write personal or fictional narratives using narrative techniques, varied transitions, and a clearly established point of view
  • Write to argue a position, supporting at least one claim and rebutting at least one counterclaim with logical reasoning, credible evidence from sources, elaboration, and using a logical organizational structure
  • Write expository texts to explain and analyze information from multiple sources, using relevant supporting details, logical organization, and varied purposeful transitions
  • Improve writing by planning, editing, considering feedback from adults and peers, and revising for clarity and cohesiveness
  • Present information orally, in a logical sequence, supporting the central idea with credible evidence
  • Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level
  • Conduct research to answer a question, drawing on multiple reliable and valid sources, and generating additional questions for further research
  • Integrate diverse digital media to emphasize the relevance of a topic or idea in oral or written tasks
  • ​​Use a variety of digital tools to collaborate with others to produce writing
  • Extend previous understanding of rational numbers to define irrational numbers within the real number system. Locate an approximate value of a numerical expression involving irrational numbers on a number line
  • Plot, order and compare rational and irrational numbers, represented in various forms
  • Extend previous understanding of the Laws of Exponents to include integer exponents. Apply the Laws of Exponents to evaluate numerical expressions and generate equivalent numerical expressions, limited to integer exponents and rational number bases, with procedural fluency
  • Express numbers in scientific notation to represent and approximate very large or very small quantities. Determine how many times larger or smaller one number is compared to a second number
  • Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation with procedural fluency
  • Solve real-world problems involving operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation
  • Solve multi-step mathematical and real-world problems involving the order of operations with rational numbers including exponents and radicals
  • Apply the Laws of Exponents to generate equivalent algebraic expressions, limited to integer exponents and monomial bases
  • Apply properties of operations to multiply two linear expressions with rational coefficients
  • Rewrite the sum of two algebraic expressions having a common monomial factor as a common factor multiplied by the sum of two algebraic expressions
  • Solve multi-step linear equations in one variable, with rational number coefficients. Include equations with variables on both sides
  • Solve two-step linear inequalities in one variable and represent solutions algebraically and graphically
  • Given an equation in the form of x²=p and x³=q, where p is a whole number and q is an integer, determine the real solutions
  • Determine if a linear relationship is also a proportional relationship
  • Given a table, graph or written description of a linear relationship, determine the slope
  • Given a table, graph or written description of a linear relationship, write an equation in slope-intercept form
  • Given a mathematical or real-world context, graph a two-variable linear equation from a written description, a table or an equation in slope-intercept form
  • Given a real-world context, determine and interpret the slope and y-intercept of a two-variable linear equation from a written description, a table, a graph or an equation in slope-intercept form
  • Given a system of two linear equations and a specified set of possible solutions, determine which ordered pairs satisfy the system of linear equations
  • Given a system of two linear equations represented graphically on the same coordinate plane, determine whether there is one solution, no solution or infinitely many solutions
  • Given a mathematical or real-world context, solve systems of two linear equations by graphing
  • Given a set of ordered pairs, a table, a graph or mapping diagram, determine whether the relationship is a function. Identify the domain and range of the relation
  • Given a function defined by a graph or an equation, determine whether the function is a linear function. Given an input-output table, determine whether it could represent a linear function
  • Analyze a real-world written description or graphical representation of a functional relationship between two quantities and identify where the function is increasing, decreasing or constant
  • Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve mathematical and real-world problems involving unknown side lengths in right triangles
  • Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to solve mathematical and real-world problems involving the distance between two points in a coordinate plane
  • Use the Triangle Inequality Theorem to determine if a triangle can be formed from a given set of sides. Use the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem to determine if a right triangle can be formed from a given set of sides
  • Solve mathematical problems involving the relationships between supplementary, complementary, vertical or adjacent angles
  • Solve problems involving the relationships of interior and exterior angles of a triangle
  • Develop and use formulas for the sums of the interior angles of regular polygons by decomposing them into triangles
  • Given a preimage and image generated by a single transformation, identify the transformation that describes the relationship
  • Given a preimage and image generated by a single dilation, identify the scale factor that describes the relationship
  • Describe and apply the effect of a single transformation on two-dimensional figures using coordinates and the coordinate plane
  • Solve mathematical and real-world problems involving proportional relationships between similar triangles
  • Given a set of real-world bivariate numerical data, construct a scatter plot or a line graph as appropriate for the context
  • Given a scatter plot within a real-world context, describe patterns of association
  • Given a scatter plot with a linear association, informally fit a straight line
  • Determine the sample space for a repeated experiment
  • Find the theoretical probability of an event related to a repeated experiment
  • Solve real-world problems involving probabilities related to single or repeated experiments, including making predictions based on theoretical probability
  • Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food; release of oxygen
  • Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide
  • Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment
  • Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy
  • Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by using models to explain the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases
  • Differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass
  • Explore and describe the densities of various materials through measurement of their masses and volumes
  • Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample
  • Recognize that there are a finite number of elements and that their atoms combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter
  • Recognize that elements are grouped in the periodic table according to similarities of their properties
  • Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also known as atomic theory) by recognizing that atoms are the smallest unit of an element and are composed of sub-atomic particles (electrons surrounding a nucleus containing protons and neutrons)
  • Identify basic examples of and compare and classify the properties of compounds, including acids, bases, and salts
  • Distinguish among mixtures (including solutions) and pure substances
  • Explore the Law of Conservation of Mass by demonstrating and concluding that mass is conserved when substances undergo physical and chemical changes
  • Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes
  • Investigate and describe how temperature influences chemical changes
  • Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space and apply our knowledge of light and space travel to understand this distance
  • Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars
  • Distinguish the hierarchical relationships between planets and other astronomical bodies relative to solar system, galaxy, and universe, including distance, size, and composition
  • Explore the Law of Universal Gravitation by explaining the role that gravity plays in the formation of planets, stars, and solar systems and in determining their motions
  • Describe and classify specific physical properties of stars: apparent magnitude (brightness), temperature (color), size, and luminosity (absolute brightness)
  • Create models of solar properties including: rotation, structure of the Sun, convection, sunspots, solar flares, and prominences
  • Compare and contrast the properties of objects in the Solar System including the Sun, planets, and moons to those of Earth, such as gravitational force, distance from the Sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions
  • Compare various historical models of the Solar System, including geocentric and heliocentric
  • Explain the impact of objects in space on each other including:
    • the Sun on the Earth including seasons and gravitational attraction
    • the Moon on the Earth, including phases, tides, and eclipses, and the relative position of each body
  • Assess how technology is essential to science for such purposes as access to outer space and other remote locations, sample collection, measurement, data collection and storage, computation, and communication of information
  • Identify and compare characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum such as wavelength, frequency, use, and hazards and recognize its application to an understanding of planetary images and satellite photographs
  • Summarize the effects of space exploration on the economy and culture of Florida
  • Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions
  • Design and conduct a study using repeated trials and replication
  • Use phrases such as "results support" or "fail to support" in science, understanding that science does not offer conclusive 'proof' of a knowledge claim
  • Explain how hypotheses are valuable if they lead to further investigations, even if they turn out not to be supported by the data
  • Analyze the methods used to develop a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science
  • Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence
  • Distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific ideas
  • Discuss what characterizes science and its methods
  • Select models useful in relating the results of their own investigations
  • Explain why theories may be modified but are rarely discarded
  • Explain that science is one of the processes that can be used to inform decision making at the community, state, national, and international levels
  • Explain how political, social, and economic concerns can affect science, and vice versa
  • Provide supporting details for an answer from text, interview for oral history, check validity of information from research/text, and identify strong vs. weak arguments
  • Analyze charts, graphs, maps, photographs and timelines; analyze political cartoons; determine cause and effect
  • Analyze current events relevant to American History topics through a variety of electronic and print media resources
  • Differentiate fact from opinion, utilize appropriate historical research and fiction/nonfiction support materials
  • Identify, within both primary and secondary sources, the author, audience, format, and purpose of significant historical documents
  • Compare interpretations of key events and issues throughout American History
  • View historic events through the eyes of those who were there as shown in their art, writings, music, and artifacts
  • Compare the relationships among the British, French, Spanish, and Dutch in their struggle for colonization of North America
  • Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies
  • Differentiate economic systems of New England, Middle and Southern colonies including indentured servants and slaves as labor sources
  • Identify the impact of key colonial figures on the economic, political, and social development of the colonies
  • Discuss the impact of colonial settlement on Native American populations
  • Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the French and Indian War
  • Describe the contributions of key groups (Africans, Native Americans, women, and children) to the society and culture of colonial America
  • Explain the consequences of the French and Indian War in British policies for the American colonies from 1763 - 1774
  • Explain American colonial reaction to British policy from 1763 - 1774
  • Recognize the contributions of the Founding Fathers (John Adams, Sam Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, George Mason, George Washington) during American Revolutionary efforts
  • Examine the contributions of influential groups to both the American and British war efforts during the American Revolutionary War and their effects on the outcome of the war
  • Describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments during the Revolutionary era
  • Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the American Revolution
  • Examine the structure, content, and consequences of the Declaration of Independence
  • Examine individuals and groups that affected political and social motivations during the American Revolution
  • Evaluate the structure, strengths, and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and its aspects that led to the Constitutional Convention
  • xamine the course and consequences of the Constitutional Convention (New Jersey Plan, Virginia Plan, Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise, compromises regarding taxation and slave trade, Electoral College, state vs. federal power, empowering a president)
  • Analyze support and opposition (Federalists, Federalist Papers, AntiFederalists, Bill of Rights) to ratification of the U.S. Constitution
  • Examine the influences of George Washington's presidency in the formation of the new nation
  • Explain major domestic and international economic, military, political, and socio-cultural events of John Adams's presidency
  • Explain major domestic and international economic, military, political, and socio-cultural events of Thomas Jefferson's presidency
  • Examine this time period (1763-1815) from the perspective of historically under-represented groups (children, indentured servants, Native Americans, slaves, women, working class)
  • Examine key events in Florida history as each impacts this era of American history
  • Examine the causes, course, and consequences of United States westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness 
  • Describe the debate surrounding the spread of slavery into western territories and Florida
  • Examine the experiences and perspectives of significant individuals and groups during this era of American History
  • Discuss the impact of westward expansion on cultural practices and migration patterns of Native American and African slave populations
  • Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the 19th century transportation revolution on the growth of the nation's economy
  • Identify technological improvements (inventions/inventors) that contributed to industrial growth
  • Explain the causes, course, and consequences (industrial growth, subsequent effect on children and women) of New England's textile industry
  • Describe the influence of individuals on social and political developments of this era in American History
  • Analyze the causes, course and consequences of the Second Great Awakening on social reform movements
  • Analyze the impact of technological advancements on the agricultural economy and slave labor
  • Examine the aspects of slave culture including plantation life, resistance efforts, and the role of the slaves' spiritual system
  • Examine the effects of the 1804 Haitian Revolution on the United States acquisition of the Louisiana Territory
  • Explain the consequences of landmark Supreme Court decisions (McCulloch v. Maryland [1819], Gibbons v. Odgen [1824], Cherokee Nation v. Georgia [1831], and Worcester v. Georgia [1832]) significant to this era of American history
  • Examine the causes, course, and consequences of the women's suffrage movement (1848 Seneca Falls Convention, Declaration of Sentiments)
  • Examine the causes, course, and consequences of literature movements (Transcendentalism) significant to this era of American history
  • Identify key ideas and influences of Jacksonian democracy
  • Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as each impacts this era of American history
  • Examine the experiences and perspectives of different ethnic, national, and religious groups in Florida, explaining their contributions to Florida's and America's society and culture during the Territorial Period
  • Explain the causes, course, and consequence of the Civil War (sectionalism, slavery, states' rights, balance of power in the Senate)
  • Analyze the role of slavery in the development of sectional conflict
  • Explain major domestic and international economic, military, political, and socio-cultural events of Abraham Lincoln's presidency
  • Identify the division (Confederate and Union States, Border states, western territories) of the United States at the outbreak of the Civil War
  • Compare Union and Confederate strengths and weaknesses
  • Compare significant Civil War battles and events and their effects on civilian populations
  • Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as each impacts this era of American history
  • Explain and evaluate the policies, practices, and consequences of Reconstruction
  • Use maps to explain physical and cultural attributes of major regions throughout American history
  • Use appropriate geographic tools and terms to identify and describe significant places and regions in American history
  • Identify the physical elements and the human elements that define and differentiate regions as relevant to American history
  • Use geographic terms and tools to analyze case studies of regional issues in different parts of the United States that have had critical economic, physical, or political ramifications
  • Use geographic terms and tools to analyze case studies of how selected regions of the United States have changed over time
  • Locate and describe in geographic terms the major ecosystems of the United States
  • Use geographic terms and tools to explain differing perspectives on the use of renewable and non-renewable resources in the United States and Florida over time
  • Interpret population growth and other demographic data for any given place in the United States throughout its history
  • Use geographic terms and tools to analyze the effects throughout American history of migration to and within the United States, both on the place of origin and destination
  • Use geographic terms and tools to explain cultural diffusion throughout the United States as it expanded its territory
  • Interpret databases, case studies, and maps to describe the role that regions play in influencing trade, migration patterns, and cultural/political interaction in the United States throughout time
  • Use geographic terms and tools to analyze case studies of the development, growth, and changing nature of cities and urban centers in the United States over time
  • Use political maps to describe changes in boundaries and governance throughout American history
  • Describe human dependence on the physical environment and natural resources to satisfy basic needs in local environments in the United States.
  • Describe the impact of human modifications on the physical environment and ecosystems of the United States throughout history 
  • Use appropriate maps and other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems and changes over time throughout American history.
  • Illustrate places and events in U.S. history through the use of narratives and graphic representations
  • Examine motivating economic factors that influenced the development of the United States economy over time including scarcity, supply and demand, opportunity costs, incentives, profits, and entrepreneurial aspects 
  • Analyze contributions of entrepreneurs, inventors, and other key individuals from various gender, social, and ethnic backgrounds in the development of the United States economy 
  • Explain the economic impact of government policies 
  • Assess the role of Africans and other minority groups in the economic development of the United States
  • Evaluate domestic and international interdependence
  • Identify the constitutional provisions for establishing citizenship 
  • Compare views of self-government and the rights and responsibilities of citizens held by Patriots, Loyalists, and other colonists 
  • Recognize the role of civic virtue in the lives of citizens and leaders from the colonial period through Reconstruction
  • Identify the evolving forms of civic and political participation from the colonial period through Reconstruction
  • Apply the rights and principles contained in the Constitution and Bill of Rights to the lives of citizens today
  • Evaluate how amendments to the Constitution have expanded voting rights from our nation's early history to present day
  • Evaluate and compare the essential ideals and principles of American constitutional government expressed in primary sources from the colonial period to Reconstruction
  • Explain that careers are based on working at jobs in the same occupation or profession for many years. Describe the different types of education and training required by various careers 
  • Identify the many decisions people must make over a lifetime about their education, jobs, and careers that affect their incomes and job opportunities
  • Explain that getting more education and learning new job skills can increase a person’s human capital and productivity 
  • Examine the fact that people with less education and fewer job skills tend to earn lower incomes than people with more education and greater job skills
  • Examine the fact that investment in education and training generally has a positive rate of return in terms of the income that people earn over a lifetime, with some education or training having a higher rate of return than others 
  • Identify the opportunity costs that education, training, and development of job skills have in the terms of time, effort, and money. 
  • Identify that interest, dividends, and capital appreciation (gains) are forms of income earned from financial investments
  • Discuss the fact that some people receive income support from government because they have low incomes or qualify in other ways for government assistance
  • Explain why when deciding what to buy, consumers may choose to gather information from a variety of sources. Describe how the quality and usefulness of information provided by sources can vary greatly from source to source. Explain that, while many sources provide valuable information, other sources provide information that is deliberately misleading
  • Analyze a source’s incentives in providing information about a good or service, and how a consumer can better assess the quality and usefulness of the information
  • Describe the variety of payment methods people can use in order to buy goods and services
  • Examine choosing a payment method, by weighing the costs and benefits of the different payment options
  • Discuss the fact that people may revise their budget based on unplanned expenses and changes in income
  • Explain that banks and other financial institutions loan funds received from depositors to borrowers and that part of the interest received from these loans is used to pay interest to depositors for the use of their money
  • Explain that, for the saver, an interest rate is the price a financial institution pays for using a saver’s money and is normally expressed as an annual percentage of the amount saved
  • Discuss that interest rates paid on savings and charged on loans, like all prices, are determined in a market
  • Explain that, when interest rates increase, people earn more on their savings and their savings grow more quickly
  • Identify principal as the initial amount of money upon which interest is paid
  • Identify the value of a person’s savings in the future as determined by the amount saved and the interest rate. Explain why the earlier people begin to save, the more savings they will be able to accumulate, all other things equal, as a result of the power of compound interest
  • Discuss the different reasons that people save money, including large purchases (such as higher education, autos, and homes), retirement, and unexpected events.  Discuss how people’s tastes and preferences influence their choice of how much to save and for what to save
  • Explain that, to assure savers that their deposits are safe from bank failures, federal 32 agencies guarantee depositors’ savings in most commercial banks, savings banks, and savings associations up to a set limit
  • Explain that people who apply for loans are told what the interest rate on the loan will be. An interest rate is the price of using someone else’s money expressed as an annual percentage of the loan principal
  • Identify a credit card purchase as a loan from the financial institution that issued the card. Explain that credit card interest rates tend to be higher than rates for other loans. In addition, financial institutions may charge significant fees related to a credit card and its use
  • Examine the fact that borrowers who use credit cards for purchases and who do not pay the full balance when it is due pay much higher costs for their purchases because interest is charged monthly. Explain how a credit card user can avoid interest charges by paying the entire balance within the grace period specified by the financial institution
  • Explain that lenders charge different interest rates based on the risk of nonpayment by borrowers.  Describe why the higher the risk of nonpayment, the higher the interest rate charged by financial institutions,and the lower the risk of nonpayment, the lower the interest rate charged
  • Describe the differences among the different types of financial assets, including a wide variety of financial instruments such as bank deposits, stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. Explain that real estate and commodities are also often viewed as financial assets
  • Calculate the amount of interest income received from depositing a certain amount of money in a bank account paying 1 percent per year and from owning a 33 bond paying 5 percent per year in order to analyze that interest is received from money deposited in bank accounts as well as by owning a corporate or government bond or making a loan
  • Discuss that when people buy corporate stock, they are purchasing ownership shares in a business that if the business is profitable, they will expect to receive income in the form of dividends and/or from the increase in the stock’s value, that the increase in the value of an asset (like a stock) is called a capital gain, and if the business is not profitable, investors could lose the money they have invested
  • Discuss that when people buy corporate stock, they are purchasing ownership shares in a business that if the business is profitable, they will expect to receive income in the form of dividends and/or from the increase in the stock’s value, that the increase in the value of an asset (like a stock) is called a capital gain, and if the business is not profitable, investors could lose the money they have invested
  • Explain that the rate of return earned from investments will vary according to the amount of risk and, in general, a trade‐off exists between the security of an investment and its expected rate of return
  • Analyze the fact that personal financial risk exists when unexpected events can damage health, income, property, wealth, or future opportunities
  • Identify insurance as a product that allows people to pay a fee (called a premium) now to transfer the costs of a potential loss to a third party
  • Describe how a person may self‐insure by accepting a risk and saving money on a regular basis to cover a potential loss
  • Discuss why insurance policies that guarantee higher levels of payment in the event of a loss (coverage) have higher prices
  • Discuss that insurance companies charge higher premiums to cover higher‐risk individuals and events because the risk of monetary loss is greater for these individuals and events
  • Explain that individuals can choose to accept some risk, to take steps to avoid or reduce risk, or to transfer risk to others through the purchase of insurance and that each option 34 has different costs and benefits
  • Evaluate social networking sites and other online activity from the perspective of making individuals vulnerable to harm caused by identity theft or misuse of their personal information
  • New Testament Survey
  • Christianity in Action:
    • Theology
    • Philosophy
    • Ethics
    • Biology
    • Psychology
    • Sociology
    • Marriage
    • History 
  •  Bible Survey: God’s Instruction for Building Faith: Letters for Holy Living
    • Paul’s counsel to churches
    • Mentoring a young pastor
    • Superiority of Christ
    • Faith lived out
    • Humility & hope
    • Love, faith & the last days